Associated Press Style

The official editorial style manual for Oregon State University communications is The Associated Press Stylebook. The book is easy to use and is a storehouse of good information about grammar and usage. It covers most questions campus writers will have about style issues. An online subscription to the AP Stylebook is recommended, which includes a summary of recent style changes. All university units are expected to follow AP style

Style also requires a good dictionary for spelling and usage issues not covered in the AP Stylebook. The AP-recommended dictionary is Webster's New World College Dictionary. In most cases, the first spelling choice listed in the dictionary should be used.

Accommodations for Disabilities

Posters, flyers, advertisements and other notices for all campus events must include an accommodations for disabilities statement at the bottom: Accommodations for disabilities may be made by contacting 541-737-XXXX or When appropriate, use: Accommodations for disabilities or dietary restrictions may be made by contacting 541-737-XXXX or It is up to the event organizer to provide the phone number and email address for coordinating accommodations requests. See Accessibility Guidelines for Event Advertisements

All printed materials must include the following accommodations for disabilities statement: This publication will be made available in an accessible alternative format upon request. Please contact [sponsoring department contact name], 541-737-XXXX or

Inclusive Language Practices

Avoid all sexual or racial stereotyping and language. Many words now have neutral alternatives: firefighterpolice officerchair, or chairperson. Use these rather than assuming a particular gender. Don't create words such as s/he, and use the plural they to avoid putting two words together with slashes: he/she. When writing about a specific person, ask what pronouns they use for themselves (e.g., she/her/hershe/him/histhey/them/theirs).

LGBT is acceptable on first reference for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. In quotations and the formal names of organizations and events, LGBTQ is also acceptable. Q can stand for questioningqueer or both.

Disabilities are handled according to the preference of the person or group. In writing about disabilities, stress the person, not the disability: persons with disabilities rather than the disabled. If you have questions, check with Disability Access Services, 541-737-4098. The ADA National Network also offers Guidelines for Writing About People With Disabilities.

Ethnic designations generally follow the preference of the person or group. Ask the person or group you're writing about how they want to be identified, such as Black or African American. Keep in mind that many people consider themselves multiracial. The Office of Institutional Diversity, 541-737-1063, Diversity and Cultural Engagement, 541-737-9030, or the Office of Equal Opportunity and Access, 541-737-3556, can help with questions. As a general rule, identify ethnic groups by recognized designations. African American, Black, Asian American, Pacific Islander, Latina/Latino/Latinx, Hispanic, Indigenous and Native American are acceptable identifiers.

The Diversity Style Guide at San Francisco State University is a useful guide for other inclusive language practices. Also refer to the AP Stylebook guide to race-related coverage.

News Media Contact Policy

To facilitate media relations, it is university policy that all news sent to the news media, and all media outreach, should be reviewed and approved by the Office of News and Research Communications. All press releases or formal, proactive media contacts by university employees should be routed through, handled by and/or coordinated in advance with news office. Download the complete News Media Contact Policy (.pdf)

Exceptions to AP Style

Because writing for higher education is not the same as writing for the news media, there are a few exceptions to AP style:

A deviation from AP style to reflect the spelling used in higher ed.

Use the nonsexist terms chair or chairperson, depending on the preference of the unit. AP prefers chairman or chairwoman, but don't use those unless they are part of an official title.

College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences
An exception to the serial comma rule per the college's request.

No periods for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, an exception from AP style to reflect how the abbreviation is most commonly used in the profession.

For save-the-date materials and invitations, the date of an event may include the year, even if the event is in the current year. 

AP Style Quick Reference

The guidelines below regarding word use, punctuation, capitalization, numbers and cultural sensitivity provide a convenient reference for the most common style issues you're likely to face while writing or editing materials for the university's audiences.

Word Use

abbreviations and acronyms
Abbreviations and acronyms should be in capital letters with no periods: GPAID cardsROTCUSA. With the exception of well-understood acronyms and abbreviations, such as B.A.M.S., Ph.D., GPA and ROTC, spell out the full name or title on first use. The AP style rule is to not put the abbreviation or acronym immediately following in parentheses. Therefore, a smart practice is to use the abbreviation or acronym shortly after the full name so the reader can make the connection. Many students take advantage of the University Exploratory Studies Program during their first year at Oregon State. UESP offers new students the opportunity to explore before committing to a major.

academic degrees
Generic degree terms such as bachelor of arts, honors bachelor of fine arts and master of science are not capitalized at Oregon State. Capitalize, however, when the formal name of the degree is used: Master of Arts in Teaching. Use periods for the abbreviations B.A., B.S., Ed.D., Ed.M., M.A., M.S., Ph.D. and Pharm.D. No periods for DVM, MBA, BFA or MFA.

For other, less commonly known degrees, spell out in body copy on first reference. The abbreviation may be used on first reference in lists and tables: Civil Engineering Graduate Degrees: MEng, M.S., Ph.D. The abbreviation is also acceptable in references to alumni: Benny Beaver, MEng ’15.

Other degrees offered at Oregon State:

BM: Bachelor of Music MAPE: Master of Adapted Physical Education MMP: Master of Medical Physics
DPT: Doctor of Physical Therapy MAT: Master of Arts in Teaching MNR: Master of Natural Resources
Ed.D.: Doctor of Education MATRN: Master of Athletic Training MPH: Master of Public Health
Ed.M.: Master of Education MCoun: Master of Counseling MPP: Master of Public Policy
EMPP: Executive Master of Public Policy MEng: Master of Engineering MSB: Master of Science in Business
MAC: Master of Accountancy MF: Master of Forestry PSM: Professional Science Masters
MAIS: Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies MHP: Master of Health Physics  

advance, advanced
When used as adjectives, advance means "ahead of time" and advanced means "beyond others." Thus, it would be advance tuition deposit, but advanced standing.

alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus, alumnx

Alumna is the feminine singular form. Alumnae is the feminine plural. Alumnus is the male (or nonspecific gender) singular. Alumni is the masculine or mixed-gender plural. Alumnx is a gender-neutral term that's gaining use in scholarly literature.

If the alumnus only received an undergraduate degree from Oregon State, listing the degree is not necessary: Benny Beaver, ’88, is a loyal alumnus. The two-number graduation year is set off by an apostrophe.

If the alumnus received undergraduate and graduate degrees from Oregon State, use just the year for an undergraduate degree, followed by graduate degrees in order: Benny Beaver, ’88, M.A. ’89, Ph.D. ’94. If space is limited, list the years only: Benny Beaver, ’88 ’89 ’94. Use this exception sparingly.

If the alumnus is a physician, veterinarian or dentist who earned an M.D., DVM or D.D.S. from another institution, just list the Oregon State degrees: Dr. Benny Beaver, ’88, M.A. ’89. If the alumnus is a veterinarian who earned bachelor’s and veterinary degrees from Oregon State: Dr. Benny Beaver, ’88, DVM ’91.

If you are including an alumnus’s degree and major, the order is degree, major (if provided) and year, set off by commas: Benny Beaver, B.A. ’88, or Benny Beaver, B.S. ’88, MBA ’94 or Benny Beaver, B.S. mechanical engineering ’88, M.S. industrial engineering ’89. Per AP style, majors are lowercase, except those with proper names: Benny Beaver, B.A. English ’88.

and, but
And or but may begin a sentence. This approach can be useful in providing a transition between closely related sentences. But it shouldn't be overdone.

Cascade Range
Not Cascades Range or Cascade MountainsCascades is acceptable in most cases; however, Cascade Range should be used on first reference for material distributed outside the Pacific Northwest.

Not catalogue.

All caps. Although the company has dropped HILL from its name, the official name for the Oregon State Alumni Association facility is CH2M HILL Alumni Center.

Don't use this term to refer to a female student. It can be used to indicate more than one sex, however, such as in coed residence hall.

These words are often misused. Comprise means "include" or "encompass." The whole comprises the parts, but the parts are composed of the whole.
The College of Liberal Arts comprises 14 departments.
The College of Liberal Arts is composed of 14 departments.

Although contractions may be discouraged in formal academic writing, they are acceptable in most instances for university news, marketing pieces and websites.

Corvallis, Corvallis campus
Do not refer to the Corvallis campus as the main campus. Oregon State University has campuses in Corvallis and BendOregon State University offers more than 100 undergraduate majors in Corvallis, more than 20 at OSU-Cascades in Bend and 46 entirely online via Ecampus. PRAx, the Patricia Valian Reser Center for the Creative Arts, is the new hub for the performing arts and humanities on the Corvallis campus.

Use a hyphen so it's not confused with coop.

course numbers
Use Arabic numerals and capitalize the subject when used with a numeral. Otherwise, lowercase.
I'm taking MTH 111 College Algebra this fall.
I'm taking college algebra this fall.

One word. This is a recent change to AP style.

This is the accepted term at Oregon State. Don't use credit hours or hours.

One word.

When a month is used with a specific date, only abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. In most cases, the year is not necessary if the date is within the current year. Always use the number, but without st, nd, rd or th. Winter term begins Jan. 4. The 2021 Commencement ceremony was held June 12.

Spell out months when using alone, or with a year alone. When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with commas. An ice storm in February 2021 damaged a number of trees on campus. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with commas. Ed Ray retired as Oregon State University president on June 30, 2020, and now serves as a professor emeritus in the College of Liberal Arts.

Oregon State's online degrees and academic programs. Not eCampus, E-campus or E-Campus. The Division of Extended Campus was renamed Oregon State Ecampus in 2018.

Don't use a hyphen. Don't capitalize unless it starts a sentence or is before the email address in a vertical list.

Gender-neutral term for faculty who have retired. Faculty can use gendered emeritus or emerita or gender-neutral emerit. As with pronouns, when writing about a specific person, ask which term they prefer.

flier, flyer
Flyer is the preferred term for handbills and for a person flying in an aircraft. They put up flyers announcing the event; He used his frequent flyer miles. Use flier in the phrase take a flier, meaning to take a big risk. This is a recent change to AP style.

freshman, freshmen
First-year student and first-year students are the preferred terms.

farther, further
Use farther to describe a physical distance. C Zone parking lots are farther from the center of campus. Use further to describe a figurative distance. Taking on an international internship pushed her further beyond her comfort zone.

Use the capital letters, ABC, etc., with no quotation marks. Plurals are made by adding s, except in the case of A, which has an apostrophe to avoid confusion with the word as: A'sBsCs, etc.

Not grey. But: greyhound.

GPA, grade-point average
Either is acceptable. GPAs normally have two numbers after the decimal, e.g., 3.004.25.

Jen-Hsun Huang and Lori Mills Huang Collaborative Innovation Complex
Use the full name on first reference. Huang Collaborative Innovation Complex is acceptable on second reference. Do not use Collaborative Innovation Complex without the Huang name. On third reference or later, Huang Complex and complex are acceptable. Note that complex is not capitalized when it stands alone: the complex, not the Complex. Huang CIC is only to be used for the most informal, internal correspondence. HCIC should only be used when space is limited, such as in a table. Do not use center or CIC.

international students
Not foreign students.

land grant
These words are closely linked, as are sea grant and space grant, so there is no need to hyphenate. Don't capitalize unless referring to its formal name, the Morrill Land Grant Act. Oregon State is a land, sea, space and sun grant university.

The LaSells Stewart Center
Always include “The” capitalized for the full, formal name. The reception will be held in the Giustina Gallery at The LaSells Stewart Center.

Marys River, Marys Peak
These are spelled without apostrophes, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, which is responsible for place names.

Words with the prefix non are generally not hyphenated unless the prefix is directly before a proper noun: nondegreenonresidentnoncreditnon-English speaking. The dictionary contains a long list of words with the non prefix and their appropriate spellings.

off campus, on campus
Hyphenate when using as an adjective, not as an adverb.
Off-campus housing is plentiful during the summer.
It's difficult to find housing off campus during the fall term.

One word, no hyphen.

Oregon State University, Oregon State, OSU
Use Oregon State University on first reference. Use Oregon State as the shortened version for the name of the university. Avoid using OSU to prevent confusion with other institutions that share our initials. Exceptions are where OSU is part of a formal name (e.g., The Campaign for OSUOSU-CascadesOSU Extension Service, OSU Foundation, OSU Alumni Association).

Oregon State University – Cascades, OSU-Cascades
Use OSU-Cascades as the shortened version for the campus in Bend. Note that there are spaces around an en dash in Oregon State University – Cascades, but no spaces in OSU-Cascades. Do not refer to the Bend campus as Cascades or OSU-Cascades Campus. Do not refer to OSU-Cascades as a branch campus or Corvallis as the main campus.

Oregon State intercollegiate athletic teams participate in the Pacific-12 Conference. It can be shortened to Pac-12 in all uses. Pac is not an acronym, however, so it should not be in all caps.

pre and post 
These prefixes generally don't take hyphens unless they come directly before proper nouns. The dictionary contains a list of words with appropriate spelling. Use preregisterpremedicinepreveterinarypostbaccalaureatepostdoctoralpre-Columbian.

range of time, day or date
The preferred form in body copy is to spell out toand/or through when referring to a range of time or days of the week. For a range of dates and in tabular material, use an en dash.
The seminar is scheduled for April 1-3.
Office hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Patricia Valian Reser Center for the Creative Arts / PRAx
Use the full name on first reference. Use the shortened brand name PRAx on second and subsequent reference as appropriate. The letters PRA are always capitalized, and the x is always lowercase. The name stands alone. Do not use PRAx Center or The PRAx. On third reference or later, center is acceptable. Do not use complex, PVRCCA or the initial name for the project, Arts and Education Complex or AEC.

residence hall
This is preferred to dorm or dormitory when referring to housing units at Oregon State.

The preferred spelling includes the diacritical marks and helps avoid confusion with resume.

state names
The names of the 50 U.S. states should be spelled out when used in the body of a story, whether standing alone or in conjunction with a city, town, village or military base (e.g., Vancouver, Washington). This is a recent change to AP style. Always use the two-letter postal service abbreviation (e.g., ORWACA) and zip code in a complete address. Do not include the state name in the body of a story for cities that stand alone in datelines (e.g., San Francisco, but Redding, California).

Acceptable on first reference for science, technology, engineering and mathematics. AP recommends spelling out the full phrase shortly thereafter.
Teacher preparation in the College of Education emphasizes the STEM fields — science, technology, engineering and mathematics.


Use figures for all times except noon and midnight and periods for a.m. and p.m. For times starting on the hour, use just the hour: 8 a.m. not 8:00 a.m. The conference runs from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. with a lunch break from noon to 1 p.m.

Not towards.

One word.

It isn't necessary to include http:// or www. in a URL when it is clear that it's a web address. Although programs like Word and PowerPoint will automatically include https:// when you copy and past from a web browser, you can delete that from the Text to Display when creating a link in your document.

When listing web addresses, try to get the URL to fit on a single line. If it is necessary to break the URL, try to break it before a slash or period. For long URLs, consider using the link shortener. Don't allow the URL to break itself by adding a hyphen because that could change the address. Use appropriate punctuation after a URL. If it finishes a sentence, place a period after it.

One word, lowercase.

Most words with wide as a suffix are closed, including universitywide and campuswide. If in doubt, check the dictionary.

Hyphenate; capitalize only when using the formal designation: Federal Work-Study Program.

One word.


It's best not to use an ampersand in place of the word and in text unless it is an official part of a name: College of Public Health and Human SciencesDepartment of Nutrition and Food Management, but AT&T. An ampersand may be used in specific instances such as campus banners where space for text on a single line is very limited.

bulleted lists
When making a bulleted or numbered list, be sure that capitalization, punctuation and structure are consistent. If items in a list are complete sentences, end each one with appropriate punctuation. Do not use semicolons at the end of bullet list items or the word and before the last list item.

The colon is used to indicate something is following that will complete or amplify the previous material. It isn't necessary to capitalize the word immediately following a colon unless it begins a complete sentence of its own or is a proper noun. Don't use unnecessary colons in sentences.
Correct: Visit the website at
Incorrect: Visit the website at:
Use a colon when the sentence isn't complete without it.
Be sure to visit the Oregon State website:

Do not use a serial comma in a series of more than two items unless it is necessary to clarify the meaning. If more than one series is used in a sentence, separate the series by semicolons if necessary to clarify the sentence.
Correct: Oregon State is one of only three land, sea, sun and space grant universities in the nation.
Incorrect: Oregon State is one of only three land, sea, sun, and space grant universities in the nation.

Set off the name of a state with commas when it follows the city name in a sentence: Corvallis, Oregon, is the home of Oregon State University.

Dates are punctuated with commas setting off the year in a complete date: June 17, 2001, marked Oregon State's first outdoor graduation ceremony. There is no comma if only the month and year are used: Oregon State's first outdoor graduation ceremony was in June 2001. Don't use ordinals such as 1st, 4th, or 23rd in dates.

Jr., Sr., II, III, etc., in names are not set off by commas: Martin Luther King Jr.Thurston Howell III.

The en dash (named because it is the width of the letter "n") is wider than a hyphen and is used between ranges of numbers or dates and between adjectival phrases containing two-word concepts: 2001–2004, pages 206–220Portland–San Francisco flight. There are no spaces before or after the en dash. In text, however, use the missing words instead of a dash: He was at Oregon State from 1993 to 1998. (Not: He was at Oregon State from 1993–1998.) If the en dash is unavailable, it is acceptable to use a hyphen in its place.

The em dash (named because it is the width of the letter "m") is used to indicate a break in thought or a strong parenthetical phrase: Two professors — what a contrast in styles — share the teaching duties. There are spaces before and after the em dash. An em dash is indicated by two hyphens in typed material.

Use the dictionary to determine the appropriate place for breaking and hyphenating words. Break words at the end of syllables, but consider the sound of the word. Some words are best not broken at certain syllables. Compound words that are hyphenated should not be broken in a second place at the end of a line: president-elect, not presi-dent-elect.

The trend is moving away from using hyphens in permanent compound words. The dictionary can help you determine the appropriateness of a hyphen in many cases. Don't use a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly: She is an overly zealous recruiter.

Some words that normally would be solid should be hyphenated for clarity: co-op (as opposed to coop), re-signed (as opposed to resigned) or for easier reading when the root word begins with a vowel: re-enrolledre-admitted.

If a dependent clause or other sentence fragment is in parentheses, the final punctuation goes outside the parentheses. If the parenthetical matter is an entire sentence, the final punctuation goes inside the parentheses. In the latter case, be sure to properly punctuate the preceding sentence leading up to the parentheses.

If parenthetical matter is included within another set of parentheses, brackets [ ] should replace the inner parentheses.

If a sentence ends with a URL or an email address, the closing punctuation, usually a period, should be included. There is no longer any real danger of web users trying to make the sentence-ending period part of the URL, but if you are concerned, use a different font for the actual URL or make it bold.

The use of periods in degree abbreviations is preferred: B.A., H.B.S., M.S.Ed.D.Pharm.D.Ph.D. Note also that there are no spaces in the degree abbreviations. For a cleaner appearance, it is acceptable to use degree abbreviations without periods in long listings or in text where degrees are repeated often.

There are no periods in OSU.

quotation marks
Quotation marks are placed outside of commas and periods, but inside of semicolons and colons. Question marks and exclamation marks are placed inside or outside the quotation marks, depending on whether they are part of the quote.

Avoid using quotation marks around a word to call attention to it or because there isn't a better word to use: She uses "air quotes" constantly in her presentation, which is very annoying.


academic and administrative titles
Capitalize a title when it appears before the person’s name: Professor Richard Jones. Do not capitalize a title when it follows a person’s name: Richard Jones, professor of mechanical engineering. The exception to this rule is for a named chair or professorship that contains the academic title or for a faculty member who has earned a title such as Distinguished Professor: Jane Lubchenco, Distinguished Professor of zoology.

academic areas
Don't capitalize areas of instruction unless the area is a proper noun: physicsEnglishforest engineeringnutrition and food science. The exception is when a formal department name is used: Department of Chemistrychemistry department.

Capitalize the names of university units when the complete title is used: Office of Financial Aid and ScholarshipsOregon State UniversityCollege of Liberal Arts. Lowercase other uses: financial aid officethe universitythe collegeliberal arts. Don't capitalize a generic term that follows or precedes more than one name: colleges of Liberal Arts and Agricultural Sciences.

Names of majors, minors, options and programs are lowercase: chemical engineeringinternational businessgerontology.

academic terms
Lowercase, even when used with a year: fall termwinter term 2019. Summer session is capitalized when referring to the Summer Session Office, but lowercase otherwise: summer session 2018.

Baccalaureate Core, Bacc Core
Capitalized when referring to Oregon State's general education program. Bacc Core is acceptable on second reference: Baccalaureate Core requirements, Bacc Core courses.

Capitalized when referring to Black or African American people, consistent with other racial and ethnic identities. This change to AP style was announced in June, 2020.

bachelor's degree/master's degree
These are lowercase and possessives, not plural. Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc., but there is no apostrophe in bachelor of arts or master of science.

Capitalized when referring to Oregon State's annual graduation ceremony. Names of annually recurring events are capitalized without quotation marks.

Central Oregon, Eastern Oregon, Southern Oregon, Western Oregon
Capitalized when referring to regions of the state: OSU-Cascades brought bachelor's and graduate degree programs to Central Oregon when it opened in 2001.

course titles
Capitalize course titles when used in text: She is taking Cultures in Conflict this term.

Don't capitalize the subject area unless it is the formal name of the degree: B.S. in Physics, Bachelor of Science in Biology, Honors Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, bachelor's degree in biology, honors bachelor's degree in political science. 

headlines, headings and subheads
Capitalize the first word only along with any proper names. This makes it easier to maintain consistency as well as avoid questions about whether articles or prepositions (e.g., the, of, with, when) should be capitalized in a heading.

Capitalize only when referring to the OSU Homecoming.

Capitalized when referring to Indigenous people, consistent with other racial and ethnic identities. This change to AP style was announced in June, 2020.


LGBT is acceptable on first reference for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. In quotations and the formal names of organizations and events, LGBTQ is also acceptable. Q can stand for questioning, queer or both.

Capitalize when referring to the MU Quad, but not other quads, such as the library quad.

Don't capitalize. It's state of Oregon, not State of Oregon. Use the same rule with city of Corvallis. Capitalize the name of a specific county or region, however: Benton CountyMarion County, Eastern Oregon, West Coast.

Tribal, Tribe
Capitalize when referring to a specific tribe: OSU’s College of Forestry is working with the Tribal council of the Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde and other Tribal nations in northwestern Oregon. Note that nations is not capitalized. Lowercase when used generally: tribal initiatives

Don't capitalize when it stands alone, even when it's used in place of Oregon State University: The university was awarded a record $449 million in research funding in 2020.



Spell out numbers of nine or less within text. Use numerals for higher numbers. Exceptions are made for ages, monetary units, percentages, credits and grade-point averages, which are always numerals unless they start a sentence: 8%3 credits3.50 GPA3-year-old daughter7 cents. It's acceptable to mix uses in a sentence: Oregon State has 17 intercollegiate athletics programs, 10 women's and seven men's. It is permissible to spell out numbers from one to 99 in formal or scientific writing.

Use the % symbol when paired with a numeral, with no space, in most cases: 18%. For amounts less than 1%, precede the decimal with a zero: Tuition rose 0.6%.

Plurals of numerals are made by adding the letter s: 100s1990s. There is no apostrophe in the plurals. Contractions of years take an apostrophe: Class of '92.

Numbers containing four digits or more (except years) take commas between each series of three numbers: 4,00012,19712,297,865. For rounded numbers of more than six digits, it is appropriate to use a figure and a word: $14 million, $237 billion.

Use dollar signs and numerals for monetary references. It's not necessary to add .00 after whole dollar amounts, but it is permissible in a sentence that also contains fractional dollar amounts. If you are just discussing cents, use the word: 5 cents47 cents.

Telephone numbers are written with a hyphen between groupings: 541-737-1000800-291-4192. A "1" should not precede the area codes. Do not use parentheses to set off area codes.

Spell out numbers at the start of a sentence unless they represent a year. 1776 is the year the Declaration of Independence was signed is permissible, but it would be better to rewrite the sentence to avoid starting with the year: The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.

Dates are indicated by cardinal, not ordinal numbers: April 1, not April 1stJuly 4, not July 4th.

A series of years can be indicated by using the entire year in both cases or only the last two numbers in the second year: 2009-2010 or 2009-10. When the years cross a century mark, the entire year must be used:1999-2002, not 1999-02.